Ngu Hanh Son (Marble Mount) or
Hon Non Nuoc:
Ngu Hanh Son is about 8km
southeast of Da Nang City. This is a cluster of five marble mountains
lying close to the sea. That is why it is dubbed Hon Non Nuoc, which means
Mountain and Water in Vietnamese.
the early 19th century, King Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty,
passed by and named the five mountains Ngu Hanh Son. He also named each of
them according to one of the five elements of the universe: Kim Son (metal
of gold), Moc Son (wood), Hoa Son (fire), Tho Son (earth), and Thuy Son
(water). The latter is both the largest and the most beautiful.
Son covering an area of 15ha has three peaks namely Thuong Thai, Trung
Thai and Ha Thai. Consequently the pagoda built on the mountain was named
Tam Thai. Also on the cliff of the mountain are such beautiful grottoes as
Linh Nham Grotto, Van Thong Grotto, Tang Chon Grotto and Huyen Khong
Tam Thai Pagoda :
pagoda was built in 1825 on the Thuong Thai peak and was repaired or
restored on several separate occasions. Close to the pagoda stand the Pho
Dong Tower, Tu Tam Pagoda and Vong Giang Dai (River-Viewing Pavilion).
Stading on Vong Giang Dai visitors can see the Cam Le River meandering
among the fertile fields of Hoa Vang district.
On the left of Tam Thai Pagoda is
Huyen Khong Grotto. Its large chamber has cool fresh air and numerous
Linh Ung Pagoda:
It was built under the reign of King Minh Mang on the cliff of Son Thuy
mountain facing the sea. It was rebuilt in 1970 with contributions from
followers of Buddhism. The pagoda houses a set of La Han statues in white
stone. On the right of the pagoda is Vong Hai Dai (Sea-Viewing Pavilion)
which offers a clear view of white sandy Non Nuoc beach.
Tang Chon Grotto :
(Truth-Storing Grotto) lies behind Linh Ung Pagoda. This rectangular
grotto is 10m long and 7m wide. Day light reaches down to the grotto
chamber, enhancing its beauty.
On the foot of Ngu Hanh Son are the mason's village of
Khoan Khoai and Hoa Khue, which boast traditional marble carving. Diverse
stone carvings such as bracelets, ash-strays, animal statuettes and so on
made here by skilled craftsmen. They make great gifts for tourists.
Non Nuoc Beach:
The beach stretches for several kilometers north and south of Ngu Hanh
Son. This fine sandy beach with sunshine all the year round makes it
suitable for tourism in all four seasons. On the beach is the Non Nuoc
Hoi An Ancient Town:
Hoi An, 30km south of Da Nang is an ancient town lying by the Thu Bon
River. Known as Faifo to early Western traders, it was one of the manor
trending centers in Southeast Asia in the 16th-19th centuries. Hoi An was
also an important port of call for Dutch, Portuguese, Italian, Chinese.
Japanese and other merchant vessels in the Far East.
In the town
there are one or two streets whose original structures remain almost
intact. All the houses were made of rare wood and are decorated with
horizontal lacquered boards and vertical parallel panels engraved with
Chinese characters. Pillars were carved with ornate designs.
Cham Museum is situated in a quiet area of Da Nang city. It was built in
1915 according to the motifs of ancient Cham Architecture. At first it was
named the Henry Parmenties Museum. At present the museum houses 297 stone
and terracotta sculptural works made between the 7th and the 15th
centuries. These are impressive works typical of the Cham culture.
My Son Sanctuary:
than 60km southwest of Da Nang lies a valley some 1.000m wide and 1,800m
long. It is My Son, one the capital of the kingdom of Champa (5th to 12th
century). French historians called it "The My Son Sanctuary" or "Valley of
Archaeological digs early this
century show that the valley in My Son village used to harbors 68
architectural works including royal palaces and temples. Most of them had
fallen into ruin either through war or over the passage of time. The
vestiges of 25 structures remain to this day.
Museum is located at the intersection of Trung Nu Vuong and Bach Dang
streets in Danang. The Cham Museum was built in 1915 with the financial
support of the French Far-East Research Institute in Vietnam. This museum
houses the most extensive collection of Cham art worldwide. In the past,
the capital of the Champa nation was located in Danang; other famous sites
of the Champa civilization include Tra Kieu, Dong Duong, My Son, and Thap
The Cham Museum was built in Cham architectural style, using thin lines
that are simple and gentle. Cham architecture originates from the period
between the 5th and 15th centuries, when a matriarchal society prevailed.
At present, the museum displays approximately 300 sculptures, among which
some are made from terracotta. The sculptures were collected from Cham
temples and towers throughout Central Vietnam, more specifically the area
stretching from Quang Binh to Binh Thuan. All the sculptures are displayed
in ten showrooms named after the localities where the pieces have been
the pieces in the showrooms, there are exterior exhibitions
that can be visited.
relics in Qua Giang
(Da Nang City) :
Champa relics in Quang Nam and Da Nang, one canít help talking about the
famous tower areas such as Mi Son, Chien Dan, Khuong My, Bang An. Besides
these, there are also other important Cham towers which are now only ruin
areas because of war and time destruction.
One of these is Cham tower in Qua Giang, Hoai Phuoc, Hoa Vang distric, Da Nang
This area includes one main temple and the surrounding secondary ones; but all
of them ruined in the early years of this century. There was only one
tower, which was heavily destroyed, left when Henri Parmentier, a French
archeologist came. However, there remains the inside part with the shape
of a rectangular, built as My Son towers E2 and F2.
Although there is just a ruin area left, one can still find some old tower
foundations with many of stone faces, Siva statues in sitting position,
God Agi statues, and many tower-tops - still in good condition together
with worshiping objects found recently. All these objects are kept in the
garden corner opposite to the wall made of the very thick bricks from the
ruin of the old Cham tower. However, it is regretful that these objects
were worn out by the nature.
years, the number of objects found in Qua Giang increase considerably.
They are sculptures with shape of manís heads for decoration of this
tower. Looking at the statues, one can easily imagine how parts of the
Sivaiste statue link to its body. Apart from five Sivaiste stone faces
exhibited in Cham Museum in Da Nang and Guimat Museum in France, the other
21 Sivaiste stone faces were found right in Qua Giang. All were sculptured
raised on up-side-down U-shape flagstones with hats of a Jata Mukhuta
style on their heads. Some of them have crescent-moon decoration and third
eye on forehead - a symbol of God Siva. Their eyes are big but some are
The faces are presented with sculptures quite similar to Dong Duong style,
which emerged once in the history of Cham and Southeast Asian sculpture.
But the thing surprises everybody is that these stone faces have very high
and thick neck-lines. Therefore, the sculptures on them are not as elegant
and specific as the ones of Dong Duong style, and that make these Qua
Giang statues mysterious.
Besides these heads, there remain more than 10 tower-tops preserved intact and
some other being broken. Each top consists of three layers with the lowest
one shaped square, steepening to the highest one. In the middle of the
top, there are some beautiful deep lines and only some tops were
An 0.4-metre Siva statue is also found here, sitting in Javanese style: the
right foot on the left one, pot-bellied, belt worn, the right hand on a
knee; but the left arm and knee were broken. Siva is sitting on a square
platform carved with a fade contour of bull-god Nadim and wearing a plain
Sampot. It head has been lost, but according to Parmentierís document, at
the time he saw this statue, the head still remained with crown, jewelry
and the third eye on forehead. Its neck is long with many thick lines.
There also remains a worshiping Liga - Zony base carved with lines stylized
from a bloom lotus. Itís a pity that we couldnít find its Liga as well as
the Liga for a big-sized Zony base placed next to a well in the garden.
Through its wide size, one could imagine that this Zony may be the base
for Liga - Zony in the main Qua Giang temple and this temple was built to
worship God Siva.
The discovery of Qua Giang objects has made a great contribution to the study
on the history of Cham sculpture and architecture. Through the analyses
above, it has come to our knowledge that Quan Giang tower was probably
built around the end of the 10th century. It was also the time
Champa nation had to face with burdens left by the former dynasties, the
conflics among aristocrats and the all-round difficulties in the inner
Indrapura reign, which left influences on Champa sculpture and
Van Pass is like a giant dragon, lying on Highway 1 on the border between
Thua Thien - Hue and Da Nang provinces.
In the past,
Hai Van Pass was known as the Thuan Hoa and Quang Nam frontier. In the
early 14th century (11306), Che Man, a king from Cham Pa, offered two
mountainous administrative units of O and Ri as engagement gifts to
Princess Huyen Tran, daughter of King Tran Nhan Tong.
On his way to
see off the Princess in the Quang area in a Summer sunny noon, the King
and his entourage were on horse back for almost half a day but could not
reach the top of the pass. Facing upwards, the King saw a rampart of
mountains in dim clouds, and at the foot of the pass, an immense ocean, of
waves. Though sorry for his daughter's difficult journey, the king was
comforted by the closer ties between the two nations.
Whenever one goes through Hai Van Pass, two feelings are
experienced: amazement at passing through the clouds and fear when seeing
the dangerous bends of the road.
A 21 km-long
road over Hai Van Pass, opened at the end of the 19th century, winds back
and forth to a height of 435 meters above sea level. With sudden curves
and blind corners, Hai Van Pass is likened to an arrogant but beautiful
girl challenging drivers' skills. Its name means
"Pass of the Ocean Clouds," since the peak of the mountain is in the
clouds while its foot is close to the sea. Hai Van is considered to be the
largest frontier post in Vietnam. The name
De Nhat Hung Quan, meaning the most colossal frontier post, is
engraved on an incense burner in Thai Temple.
top of Hai Van Pass, one can admire Lang Co Beach to the north and Danang
to the south.
The curving railway through Hai Van Pass is 3,200 meters long including
sections running through seven tunnels. There
are endless forests to the west of Hai Van Pass and the ocean is to the
east. Hai Van Pass is a real challenge for drivers, as well as for
Linh Ung Pagoda :
Situated in Hoa Hai commune, Hoa Vang
district, Linh Ung Pagoda is approximately 8 km from the center of Danang.
Linh Ung Pagoda is 100 meters from Tam Thai Pagoda overlooking the South
China Sea. Tang Chon cave is also in the same area.
The pagoda was built during the 18th century. It
was later conferred the name Ngu Che Ung Chon Tu during Minh Mangís reign.
The name was changed to Linh Ung Pagoda in the third year of Thanh Thaiís
reign. The pagoda, considered part of the beautiful landscapes of Danang,
was renovated many times. Precious documents about the history of the
pagoda are safely kept in the pagoda.
Hanh Son - Marble Mountain
(Da Nang City) :
Marble Mountains, also referred to as Ngu Hanh Son or Mountains of the
Five Elements, consist of five marble mountains: Thuy Son (water) which is
the highest, Moc Son (wood), Kim Son (metal), Tho Son (soil), and Hoa Son
(fire). They are located 12 km west of Danang.
Thuy Son has been exploited as a popular tourist resort because of its
alluring beauty. Stone steps carved into the mountain lead to the Tam Thai
Pagoda where Phat Di Lac is worshipped. At the back of the pagoda is Huyen
Khong Cave. In the past, the pagoda paid tribute to Hindu and Buddhist
gods and is now dedicated to Cham deities. Huyen Khong Cave was the base
for Vietnamese revolutionaries during wartime.
The Marble Mountains are famous for their traditional stone engraving
activities. In Dong Hai village close to Thuy Son, 600 families chisel
stone producing statues, jewelry, and art work. Stone from the Marble
Mountains has been exported to many countries.
One of the nicest beaches in Vietnam is located 2 km from the mountains
and 10 km from Danang, which is very convenient for visitors who want to
go climbing and bathing.
(Da Nang City) :
Nuoc Beach runs for 5 km against the Marble Mountains in Danang. It is
bound by Dien Ngoc Sea to the south and Danang to the north. The beach
gently slopes towards the calm, clear, blue sea; the clarity of the water
attracts people who come to bathe and enjoy the seafood. Non Nuoc Beach is
famous for its seaweed, which reaches exportation standards. Many
five-star hotels were built in Non Nuoc to accommodate the domestic and
foreign tourists in the area.